Do victims of medical errors go through psychological changes in addition to their physical ailments? Many report a sense of “betrayal” that goes beyond event itself. And are these effects limited to the direct victim, or do close friends and family also suffer? John James lost his son tragically to a medical error. The medical error resulting in his son's death affected every living member of his family. In fact, after the passing of his mother last year, he found a diary documenting just how deeply the loss of her grandson affected her. Janet Holt's betrayal came in the form of complete denial from the medical community that her horrific pain was coming from the implant she received. She spent years begging for a physician to help her. The mental scars will last a lifetime for her. And attorney Peter Mullenix has observed that his medical malpractice victim clients seem to suffer emotionally in ways that are distinct from other kinds of injured clients. According to this article, some researchers have also seen this and coined the phrase "Institutional Betrayal" to describe it.